"name": "The Margaret Sanger Papers"
"summary": "<div><div><p>Schoolteacher, educator and women's suffrage activist. Born in Massachusetts, her family relocated to New York in 1826. Her family opposed slavery and abolitionist meetings were often held at her family's house. She worked as a teacher before becoming an activist for a number of causes. She founded the Women's State Temperance Society of New York and became a leading anti-slavery advocate working with the American Anti-slavery Society, as well as founding the National Women's Loyal League in 1863 with Elizabeth Cady Stanton to help gather support for the 13<sup>th</sup> Amendment that would abolish slavery. In 1866, she combined both black and women's suffrage goals in the American Equal Rights Association. In 1869 she co-founded the National Women Suffrage Association (NWSA) with Stanton and was arrested in 1872, and subsequently fined, for attempting to register to vote in the presidential election, which gave her and the suffrage movement publicity as she went on a lecture tour while waiting for trial. After the NWSA merged with American Woman Suffrage Association, creating the National American Woman Suffrage Association in 1890, she continued to lecture throughout the country on suffrage, speaking before Congress, as she was an active lobbyist in Washington, D.C. She chaired the International Council of Women in 1904 in Berlin and became the President of the International Woman Suffrage Alliance, which was dedicated to campaigns for universal suffrage. From 1868-1870, in Rochester, New York, Anthony and Stanton edited the newspaper, <em>The Revolution</em>, the voice of the NWSA. The magazine was a militant suffrage magazine that also called for an 8 hour working day and equal pay for equal work. She also edited with Stanton and Matilda Joselyn Gage the <em>History of Woman Suffrage</em> <em>Volume 1</em> (Fowler and Wells, 1881) as well as Volumes 2-4 (Rochester, Susan B. Anthony, 1881, 1886, 1902) with Ida Huster Harper, who also wrote Anthony's authorized biography, <em>Life and Works of Susan B. Anthony</em> (Bowen and Merrill, 1898). Anthony died in New York in 1906. When the 19th Amendment was passed in 1920, giving women the right to vote, it was also known as the Susan B. Anthony Amendment.</p></div><hr/><div><p>The sources presented as “Women Already Voters” were assembled to reconstruct events mentioned in a volume of the <em>Selected Papers of Elizabeth Cady Stanton and Susan B. Anthony</em>—specifically, in the second volume, <em>Against an Aristocracy of Sex, 1865 to 1873</em>.  For their insight into Reconstruction, however, the sources are useful for many more purposes.</p> <p>“Women Already Voters” was a claim women made after the Civil War while they took direct action to test its truth.  Around them, men in Congress and the press debated how far the Fourteenth and Fifteenth Amendments reached in protecting citizens’ rights and what linked citizenship to voting rights.  At the moment in American history when former slaves became citizens and the men among them became voters, white and black women hoped to walk through the door to political participation.  They embraced the idea that the United States could eliminate from fundamental law all distinctions of sex while eliminating distinctions of race.</p> <p>In at least twenty-two of the United States, hundreds of women tried to register to vote and tried to cast ballots, assisted by family and friends in their communities. The cases here were the best known of this social movement.  With one exception, the women in this group were stopped by local officials or state courts or federal courts or federal marshals or justices of the Supreme Court of the United States, but they took their cause to the courts.  Through their cases, defense attorneys raised difficult questions about discrimination and constructed expansive definitions of rights, while prosecutors and judges settled the constitutional questions by reasserting male prerogatives and, in the end, extolling a category of citizenship without political rights, suitable to women. For a working list of the hundreds of women who tried to vote between 1868 and 1873 but never contested their exclusion, see http://ecssba.rutgers.edu/resources/wompolls.html</p> <p>Most credit for the work amassing this collection goes to Susan I. Johns.  Danielle Bradley and Katharine Lee made this presentation of the sources possible.  Ann D. Gordon, editor of the papers of Elizabeth Cady Stanton and Susan B. Anthony, is responsible for omissions and errors.</p><p>The website for the Elizabeth Cady Stanton and Susan B. Anthony Papers Project is <a title=\"ECSSBA Papers\" href=\"http://ecssba.rutgers.edu/\">http://ecssba.rutgers.edu</a>.  Information about Anthony's trial can be found on the Federal Judicial Center's <a title=\"FJC\" href=\"http://www.fjc.gov/history/home.nsf/page/tu_anthony_background.html\">website</a>.</p></div><hr/><p>Grand-niece of Susan B. Anthony (1820-1906).</p></div>",
"preferred_name": "Anthony, Susan Brownwell, 1820-1906",