Passengers on the Buford

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Biographical Information on “Buford” Deportees

Antonchick, Fredor (or Fred; Fedor)

Claghorn, The Immigrant’s Day in Court: (425) Deported on charge of supporting the violent overthrow of the U.S. government. Denied membership in URW. Member of longshoreman’s union, AFL.  Didn’t read English. Arrested distributing handbills that he could not read at a strike.

Becker, Morris

Avrich, Anarchist Voices. 508n.370: Ferrer Center anarchist, participated in anti-conscription movement, subsequently served twenty months in Atlanta penitentiary.

Berger, Fredk. H. (or Fredrick Harold; F.H)

NY Times 10 Dec 1919: Alleged IWW agitator; arrested Fresno, CA Dec 1919.

SF Chronicle 10 Dec 1919: Denied writ of habeas corpus by Federal Judge Mayer 9 Dec 1919; claims he was arrested in Fresno 2 years ago.

Bernstein, Ethel

Avrich, Anarchist Voices. 519n.505: Jewish anarchist, member of Frayhayt Group with Jacob Abrams and Mollie Steimer.

342: Spent 10 years of hard labor in Siberian Prison camp; married to Samuel Lipman.

NY Tribune 22 Dec 1919: Arrested NY 29 September 1919, member of Union of Russian Workers, twenty-one years old, dressmaker, arrived from Russia around 1911

NY Times 3 Dec 1919: Indicted for criminal anarchy 2 Dec after 30 September arrest.

Chicago Daily Tribune 3 Dec 1919: Participated in Ellis Is. hunger strike with Arthur Ketses.

Chicago Daily Tribune 21 Dec 1919: Arrested along with Ethel Bernstein in Nov 1919 raid on “Russian soviet headquarters” in NYC.

Bianki (or Bianchi; Bianke; Bianky; Bainky), Peter (or Pieter)

Avrich, Anarchist Voices. 367: Editor of Khleb I Volia, Secretary of URW in NY.Russian of Italian parentage, window washer by trade; with Adolph Schnabel, was the “guiding spirit of the organization” [URW]

365: “simply a class conscious worker—nothing more. He became a Communist in Russia.

369: Back in Russia, joined Communist Party, killed as member of a food-requisition squad, “trying to get hay and fodder in a village.”

NY Tribune 2Dec1919: “Leader of radicals at Ellis Island”, went on hunger strike

NY Tribune 22 Dec 1919: Secretary Treasurer of the Union of Russian Workers; last engaged as editor of “Bread and Freedom”; “caused a copy of the resolutions advocating the overthrow of the government to be sent to each local of the federation.”; “one of the most notorious anarchists who ever entered the United States”; born in Russia, came to U.S. in January 1913, used alias “Mr. Peters”, believer in the “doctrine of ‘free love’”.

LA Times  22 Dec 1919: Shouted on Buford departure, “Free Russia will some day shake hands with free America.”; “one of the most notable of the party outside of Berkman and Goldman”’;

Post, The Deportation Delirium of Nineteen-Twenty (23-24): 27 years old, wife and son. Came to U.S. at age of 22.

Buhkanov (or Buhkanova; Buschamoff), Thos. P. (or Thomas P.); alias “Tommy the Kid”

NY Tribune 22 Dec 1919: Of Freeport, Long Island; nephew of Peter Bianky (mother’s side)

NY Tribune 23 Dec 1919: Seventeen years old, resided in Greenpoint, Brooklyn; employed as machinist, financial secretary of Greenpoint branch of URW; received his radical education from the “public schools and public libraries of the city.”

NY Times 23 Dec 1919: Later admitted that Bianky had “converted him to radicalism.”

Chernoff, Alexander

NY Tribune 23 Dec 1919: Active member of Union of Russian Workers, twenty-four years old, arrived in U.S. 1915-1916; arrested in Waterbury, Conn. “three or four” months ago; represented Union at radical conventions; “a strong believer in violence.”

NY Times 23 Dec 1919: Always went out of his way to discourage aliens from becoming citizens.

Chrikaluik (or Chikaliuk), Leon (or Leo)

Claghorn, The Immigrant’s Day in Court: (409) Laborer at a tool mill. Denied membership in URW.

Derkoch (or Derkach; Derkheh; Darkach), Alexander

SF Chronicle 9 Dec 1919: Arrested at home of Vincent Martzin in Washington, D.C. 8 Dec 1919; meeting of URW suspected.

Duboff, John (or E.; Ivan)

Claghorn, The Immigrant’s Day in Court: (421) An admitted anarchist. Arrested in New York in raid of People’s House. Believed in the violent overthrow of the government. “How can I sympathize with America when they oppress me so much and beat me?”

Eelak (or Elak; Felak), David

Claghorn, The Immigrant’s Day in Court: (403) arrested in McKees Rocks in May 1919.

Geray (or Gerey), Andrew

Claghorn, The Immigrant’s Day in Court: (410) Denied membership in URW, deported on the charge.

Garoshkow (or Goroshkov), George; alias Balul (or Balui), Ivan

Claghorn, The Immigrant’s Day in Court: (411) Russian, from Mohilev. Arrested as member of URW.

Hajdak (or Hajduk; Hieduk; Hadjuk), Alfons (or Alfonso)

Claghorn, The Immigrant’s Day in Court: (424) Polish. Deported as URW member; charged with belief in the overthrow of the government by force. Joined Union to receive schooling. Worked as a window cleaner. Disclaimed belief in the violent overthrow of the government; felt the U.S. government had been good to him.

Haskewich (or Haskewicz; Haskevich), Leo

Claghorn, The Immigrant’s Day in Court: (381-2) Came to U.S. in 1913 from Grodno, Russia. Worked there as a farmer. Twenty-one years old. Worked at meat market, chain shop, rubber factory in Akron, OH. Joined URW to help the working people, understood its mission to be to educational (reading, writing), not to oppose government in U.S.

Ketsus (or Ketsas; Ketses; Katzes; Ketzus), Arthur

Avrich (as “Arthur Katz”), 367: On editorial board of Khleb i Volia.

NY Tribune 22 Dec 1919: Arrested NY 29 September 1919, member of Union of Russian Workers, twenty-two years old, born in Russia, came to U.S. via Canada in 1914, “claims employment as a pressman”

NY Times 3 Dec 1919: Indicted for criminal anarchy 2 Dec after 30 September arrest, residence at 58 E. 108th St., one of leaders of Ellis Is. hunger and silence strikes.

Korscheikoff (or Korschikoff), Tony (or Antony)

Panunzio, The Deportation Cases, 25: Arrested at Union of Russian Workers school in NYC People’s House on 7 November 1919. He was studying arithmetic.

Koza, Joe

Panunzio, The Deportation Cases, 93: Wanted to leave U.S.; suggested that the U.S. government assist him across the border and he’d go off on his own.

Krachie (or Krechin), Paul

Claghorn, The Immigrant’s Day in Court: (383) Born 1890 in Volga neighborhood of province of Saratov in Russia. Came to U.S. 1912, leaving behind his wife. Worked in soda ash shop. In Akron, worked in tire shop. Joined URW in solidarity with other Russian immigrant workers and to learn to read.

Kudreyko (or Kravchuk), Mickal (or Mikal; Michael; Michail)

Avrich, Anarchist Voices. 367: refers to “Peter Kravchuk”, and ordinary workman, former secretary of URW in Detroit; in NY worked as sec of housewreckers’ union. Worked on Khleb i Volia. Died in 1919 [?]

NY Tribune 23 Dec 1919: Came to NY from Detroit, upon arrival in NY renewed his radical activities with URW at 133 E. 15th St.

Kushnareo (or Kushnarev), Feodor; alias Dalney, Alexander

Avrich, Anarchist Voices. 367: Worked on Khleb i Volia. Jewish. Organized branch of URW in New Haven with K.F. Gordienko. Became secretary of URW in NY.

NY Tribune 23 Dec 1919: About twenty-one; resided at 242 E. 12th St.; Hebrew, left Russia for U.S. to study, organizer in Union of Russian Workers, “a strong advocate of free love”.

Claghorn, The Immigrant’s Day in Court: (392) Jewish. Born in Kiev. Came to U.S. via England in 1914. Studied at NYC People’s House. Denied that he was an anarchist, claimed belief in organized government. Described URW as an organization for self-enlightenment. Had received education in Russia.

Lazarewich (or Lazarowitz), Andrew

Panunzio, The Deportation Cases, 27: Arrested without a warrant after pausing to watch a 7 November raid.

Lipkin (or Lipking), Dora

NY Tribune 22 Dec 1919: Thirty years old, arrived in U.S. from Russia in 1914, common law wife of Hyman Perkus, member of Union of Russian Workers, arrested 8 October.

Chicago Daily Tribune 21 Dec 1919: Arrested along with Ethel Bernstein in Nov 1919 raid on “Russian soviet headquarters” (URW People’s House) in NYC.

Lovonetsky, Anthony

Claghorn, The Immigrant’s Day in Court: (410) Russian Pole from Mohilev. Had been in U.S. for six years. Admitted member of URW; deported as an anarchist.

Martzin, Vincent

SF Chronicle 9 Dec 1919: Arrested at home in Washington, D.C. with Alexander Darkach 8 Dec 1919, meeting suspected of URW.

Panunzio, The Deportation Cases, 90: Wanted family to travel with him to Russia; wife was 22 years old, had 1-year old child, with another due in April 1919.

Melvicoff (or Melnicoff; Melnik; Nelnik), Pavel (or Paval; Paul; Pawel)

SF Chronicle 9 Dec 1919: expert bombmaker and Bolshevik; suspect in Greenwood bomb outrage; arrested in Oakland (Jack London Memorial Hall, 1256 Market St.), to NYC under charge of Government Agent Leo D. Russel; had earlier been arrested for bombings in Trenton, NJ (John Roebling & Sons, manufactures of submarine nets and trench barb-wire) and Philadelphia. Admitted head of “Bolshevik ‘school’ at Seattle”, in process of opening such a school in SF. Initially held at Angel Island.

Michaeloff (or Mihaeloff; Mihailov), Nicholas

Panunzio, The Deportation Cases, 89: Worked as a machinist. Arrested in March 1919. Wife had been in U.S. 8 years, had 7-week old child.

Nikolaeff (or Nickaleff; Nickalaeff), Frank

Claghorn, The Immigrant’s Day in Court: Illiterate, member of URW. Went to meetings only to find companionship. Claimed ignorance of the Union’s principles.

Oradovsky (or Oraczsky; Orazosky; Ordowsky; Obadovsky; Orazcsky; Oraxosky; Oradowsky), Marcus

Avrich, 367: Worked on Khleb i Volia as paper distributor, came to U.S. from South America

NY Tribune 23 Dec 1919: Subject of Russia in U.S. for three and a half years; Treasurer for URW; advocate of revolution in U.S., attempted escape upon arrest; involved in publication “The Workman and the Peasant”.

NY Times 23 Dec 1919: Arrested 7 Nov 1919; admitted advocate of revolution in the U.S.

Perkus, Hyman (or Nikifor)

Avrich, Anarchist Voices. 342: According to Ethel Bernstein, killed by Stalin.

367: from Cleveland. Jewish. Carpenter. Friend of Goldman and Berkman.

374: anarchist Red Cross member, traveled with others to Russia in 1917 to meet former prisoners.

NY Tribune 23 Dec 1919: Common law husband of Dora Lipkin, powerful URW organizer, advocates violence, self-confessed anarchist; in U.S. “only a few years”

NY Times 23 Dec 1919: Described by Government officials as “one of the most powerful organizers among Russian workmen in the East.”

Poluleck, Joseph; alias Balluch (or Bolluch)

Panunzio, The Deportation Cases, 43 and 60-62: Russian, in U.S. since 1912. Arrested 7 November 1919 in URW school at NYC People’s House at the age of 27 as an accused member of the URW. The only evidence presented at Poluleck’s hearing connecting him to the organization was a membership book without any identification of owner. At Ellis Island, he denied himself the right to counsel, saying, “I cannot tell anything more to a lawyer or through a lawyer than I can tell you. I am ready to answer all questions.” In his interrogation, Poluleck denied that he was an anarchist, and said that he did not “belong to anything but the Church.” He regularly attended the Methodist Episcopal Church on 2nd Avenue, as corroborated by the church’s pastor. Poluleck began attending classes offered by the URW only when the church had cancelled its evening instruction because of lack of funds. He favored a U.S.-style of government, but maintained his Russian citizenship so that he could return home as a missionary. During WWI, he was an active member of the Liberty Loan Committees.  During Poluleck’s detention at Ellis Island, he and his friends from the church maintained correspondence, much of which was censored. Although his friends and pastor organized in his defense, they were unsuccessful in preventing the deportation.

Potenkin (or Potemkin), Efreem (or Efrem)

Claghorn, The Immigrant’s Day in Court: (411) Arrested as member of URW, denied membership. Worked at Pittsburgh Steel Products Company.

Prauka (or Pranka), Andy

Claghorn, The Immigrant’s Day in Court: (410) Russian. Wife in Russia. Admitted member of URW. Joined to meet other Russians. Did not believe in the Union’s principles.

Sawicki (or Sevitsky), Michail (or Michil; Mick; Mich; Nick)

Panunzio, The Deportation Cases, 68: URW member, described the organization’s purpose as teaching the illiterate “by blackboards.”

Schatz, Bosis (or Boris)

Avrich, Anarchist Voices. 367: Referred to as “Shatz”; on editorial board of Khleb i Volia with brother.

Schatz, Harry (or Alexander; Alex)

Avrich, Anarchist Voices. 367: Referred to as “Shatz”; on editorial board of Khleb i Volia with brother.

NY Tribune 23 Dec 1919: Active in URW, delegate to convention of Federation of URW (Jan 1919); considered by the Dept of Justice as “one of the most dangerous of the entire group.”

NY Times 23 Dec 1919: regarded as most dangerous arrested locally; 30 years old, from Russia, came to U.S. at 25 years

Panunzio, The Deportation Cases, 90-91: (could be information for brother). Arrested March 1919, released, arrested, released, arrested definitively in November. Wife Elsie had first child in March. The child died soon after. Upon her husband’s arrest in November, she had a miscarriage.

Schrabel-Delass (or Schnabel-Belass; Sznabel; Schnabel; Sanabel), Adolph

Avrich, Anarchist Voices. 367: Of German origin, from Ukraine; worked in NYC as mechanic; editor of Kolokol and of Nabat. Good speaker, debater: “Always ready to talk on three subjects: anarchism, Marxism, and religion; had idea that staffs of Russian Anarchist papers get equal pay. Return to NY from Detroit 1918, active in URW.

519n.502: Also active in URW of Canada.

NY Tribune 23 Dec 1919: former secretary of URW, turned over position to Peter Bianky after arrest; married, wife lives in NYC.

NY Times 23 Dec 1919: until Feb 1919, “the most active member of the Union of Russian Workers in the United States.”; 61 years old, of Russian province of Kovnc; arrested 1917 in Pittsburg, ordered deported, released on bail; re-arrested 7 Nov 1919.

Skochuk (or Skoshuk), Harry (or Grigori)

Panunzio, The Deportation Cases, 25: Arrested at URW School at NYC People’s House 7 November 1919. The police took his laundry checks, school cards and insurance papers.

Stepanuk (or Stekanuk), Naum

NY Tribune 23 Dec 1919: First URW member arrested on 7 Nov, as Secretary of the federation; thirty-six years old, resided at 151 E. 15th St.; earlier arrested by Dept of Labor in Akron, OH as secretary of URW.

Claghorn, The Immigrant’s Day in Court: (377-381) In U.S. since 1909; worked on parents’ farm in Russia. In U.S., worked in coal mines, steel works, smelting, Kansas harvest. At time of initial arrest, worked as a rubber company in Akron. Believed that most Russian immigrants were satisfied with U.S. working conditions. Claimed that main purpose of URW was to teach workers to read and write; insisted that organization’s revolutionary doctrines applied to Russia only; thought that revolution in that country was necessary to overthrow the czar and to establish a government of the people. Believer in nonviolence; understood anarchy to mean “ love, equality, and construction”. On return to Ellis Island after original release on bail, participated in hunger strike

Tarasyk (or Tarasiuk; Tarasyk; Tarasjuk; Tarasy; Tarasuk; Trasky; Trausk; Trasyk; Tarasink;Rasky), John (or John T.; Ivan; Iwan); alias Dimstrius (or Dimitrius)

Panunzio, The Deportation Cases, 25: Arrested without a warrant because present at the house of friend Tony Chinelli during the latter’s arrest.

Claghorn, The Immigrant’s Day in Court: (382) From Grodno, Russia. Came to U.S. in 1913. Worked in Youngstown in steelworks and fireproofing company. In Akron, worked at tire factory. Opposed to czar in Russia, not to U.S. government.

Turka, Tom

Claghorn, The Immigrant’s Day in Court: Member of URW in South Bethlehem. Later joined in Newark. Did not know the principles of the Union. Did not believe in violent revolution, denied belief in anarchy. Denounced treatment of Russians by U.S. government. Deported on charge of anarchy.

Veramanuk, John

NY Tribune 23 Dec 1919: Former Secretary of the Maspeth, Long Island branch of URW, believed to be cause of most “labor troubles” in that area, active organizer throughout Long Island, founded several Union branches throughout.

Volosuk, Nicolai (or Nicolaj; Nikolaay)

Claghorn, The Immigrant’s Day in Court: (394) Born in Grodno. Thirty-one. Literate. Came to U.S. in 1914. Worked in Bethlehem in steel factory and ammunition works. Self-educated in botany and forestry. Denied that he was an anarchist. Did not speak or write in English(?) Purchased land in U.S.

Wodner (or Wardner), Harry

Claghorn, The Immigrant’s Day in Court: (427) Jewish. Enrolled in automobile class at People’s house. Did not want to leave U.S. No indication of direct connection to URW.

Yanish, Mike

Claghorn, The Immigrant’s Day in Court: (409) URW member; denied all radical beliefs

Zayats, Thomas

Claghorn, The Immigrant’s Day in Court: Employed at Pittsburgh Steel Products Company. Arrested as member of URW, but denied the charge.

Zboromirsky (or Vboromirsky; Vbromirsky; Zboromorisky), Jacob

Claghorn, The Immigrant’s Day in Court: (411) Arrested as member of URW. Worked in bake shop. Joined Union because he thought that it would help Russian workers return to their native country.