I.W.W. Chronology 1917-1919

This note is open
Project
The Emma Goldman Papers
Private
No
License
©
Author
Last updated
Sept. 16, 2010, 11:48 a.m. (view history)

I.W.W. Chronology 1917-1919

1916

November 20- The annual IWW convention began in Chicago. The members adopted a resolution that declared the IWW direct opponents of the Great War. Several thousand dollars was allotted to a special fund for establishing the Metal Mine Workers’ Union No. 800 in Arizona.

1917

By 1 January 1917 the IWW had sixty thousand paid up members and three hundred thousand union cards were issued since 1905.

Haywood sent two general executive board members and IWW attorney Fred Moore to Washington D.C. to ask for assistance from federal authorities against vigilantes and raids and to lay the IWW's claim for justice before the President and Justice Department.

March?- Idaho and Minnesota pass the first criminal syndicalism laws in the United States following the strike on the Mesabi Range and in the lumber camps. Twenty-three other states passed similar laws.

January- Twenty-nine IWW members serving prison terms at the St. LouisCounty work farm in Minnesota went on strike and refused to work.

January 1- Oil Workers' Industrial Union No. 450 of the IWW was organized for oil workers in Oklahoma and Kansas.

January 26- The trial date for Thomas H. Tracy, the first of the seventy-four IWW members to be tried on the charge of murder for their involvement in the Everett massacre, was set for 5 March 1917. The IWW had scheduled a meeting in response to repression of striking workers' free speech and the violence on 30 October 1916. On 5 November 1916 approximately 250 Wobblies, who traveled on a small steamer attempted to dock in Everett, Washington, were met by a group of vigilantes and deputies waiting to stop them. Shots fired and a frenzied shoot out followed, prompting the IWW boat to turn back. Five IWW members  killed, thirty-one wounded, an unknown number drowned and two deputies were killed and twenty wounded in an event that became known as Everett's "Bloody Sunday." In addition the Defense Attorneys Vanderveer and Moore applied for a change of venue on the ground of prejudice in Snohomish County. The trial was later moved to Seattle.

January 29- Metal Mine Workers' Union No. 800 in Arizona was established.  By April the union had six thousand members.

February- Elizabeth Gurley Flynn went on a speaking tour in the Pacific Northwest to win support for the IWW members being tried for murder in Seattle, Washington.

February 2- A hearing for a change of venue for the Everett massacre defendants took place.

February 5- The Immigration Act of February 5, 1917(39 Statutes-At-Large 847) passes over President Wilson's veto. This Act enormously increased the list of excludable classes from immigration.  In addition to anarchists, which class had been excluded since 1903, any persons who advocated or taught the unlawful destruction of property was now barred entry.  This addition was purposely targeted at the IWW.  In addition the time limit for deportation after entry was increased from three years to five, excepting prostitutes.

February 6- Hunger strike was called by 5 IWW men held in Neodesha, Kansas.

February 9- Judge Raoland granted the request of Defense Attorneys Vanderveer and Moore for a change of venue for the seventy-four Wobblies held in connection with the Everett, Washington shootout. Their trial was moved to Seattle because of the prejudice in Snohomish County.

February 10- The Industrial Worker prints an article declaring "Capitalists of America, we will fight against you and not for you!" This article made a public announcement of the IWW's opposition to World War I.

February 16- A bill introduced into the Washington state legislature in Olympia, Washington defined "criminal-syndicalism" as advocating by word of mouth or writing sabotage, violence, or other unlawful methods of bringing about industrial or political revolution and making the offense a felony.

February 21- Police charge sugar worker strikers in Philadelphia and kill a striker named Martinus Petkus. The IWW longshoremen and men on the boats refused to handle or transport sugar to support the strikers.

March-May- The War Department authorized local army officers to sternly repress acts committed with seditious intent.

March 4- At a special IWW convention in Spokane, Washington lumber workers established a six-thousand member IWW industrial union called the Lumber Workers' Industrial Union No. 500

March 5- The first Wobbly charged with murder in Everett, Washington, Thomas H. Tracy began his trial in Seattle.

March 24- The IWW newspaper Solidarity declared the union's position against the war in an article entitled "The Deadly Parallel."  The article compared the IWW's anti-war stance with the American Federation of Labor's pledge to support the U.S. during the war and to protect their nation from its enemies.  The article also stated that the IWW would not support the war because it was waged for conquest and exploitation, destroyed the lives and unity of the workers, and delayed the American peoples' realization that the United States government's aim was patriotic and capitalistic.  The IWW felt that their one enemy-the capitalist class— supported and preached the war so they therefore were determined opponents to America's involvement in World War I.

March 27- State militiamen and off-duty U.S. Marines raided the IWW headquarters in Kansas City, Missouri destroying organization papers and the office.  Kansas City police placidly watched and then departed in company with the soldiers.

Spring and Summer- IWW strikes affected the wheat fields, forests, and copper mines throughout the U.S.

April 6- America enters WWI

Presidential proclamation which authorized the detention of enemy aliens declared.  Federal Officials believed a considerable number of IWW leaders to fit into that category.

April 7- The Socialist Party held an emergency convention in St. Louis.  At the meeting members urged socialists to oppose the war but socialist leaders outside of Debs, Hillquit, and Berger supported Wilson and American intervention.

April 10- Explosion of the Eddystone Ammunition Corporation in Philadelphia caused the death of one hundred and thirty-three lives. Police blamed the explosion on the <sc>IWW<es>.

April 13?- Minnesota passed the first state criminal syndicalism law.

April 16- President Woodrow Wilson made an address explaining the urgent need for supplies during wartime.

April 17- Loggers begin a strike on the Fortine River, Montana.

May- At a meeting of the Labor Council in Aberdeen, Washington the IWW was characterized as "un-American" and an enemy to workers and organized labor. Charles Perry Taylor, Secretary of

class=Section2>

the State Federation of Labor?, stated that the AFL was opposed to the methods and tactics of the IWW.

May 4- Thomas H. Tracy was acquitted for the murder of Deputy Sheriff Jefferson Beard in Seattle.  The state of Washington dismissed a total of fifty-nine cases against IWW men who were on trial for the shooting of police officers in Everett, Washington.

May 8- Thirty-eight IWW members held as a result of the 5 November 1916 Everett massacre were released. A total of fourteen men were still held.

May 9-14- A five day strike of construction workers was held in Washington.  As a result the workers received a wage increase of three dollars or more per eight hour day, hospital fees were abolished and all men who performed grading work in or near Seattle were hired from the IWW hall.

May 18- The Selective Service Act was passed which gave the President the right to conscript men into military service during war.

May 24- Chicago IWW headquarters secretly raided in the night and a number of records were stolen.

May 30- IWW headquarters in Detroit was raided.

Early June- A lumber strike begins in the Pacific Northwest.  Employers formed the Lumbermen's Protective League.  The league worked to try and keep IWW members out of the lumber forests by using the rustling card system, which showed a worker did not belong to any union and therefore was allowed to work, and urging the government forest service to secure its firefighters only through company agencies.

June 6- Clyde Hough and a few other IWW men were arrested in Rockford, Illinois for refusing to sign up for the draft.  About six hundred men marched to the county jail in protest and to declare their refusal to sign up for the war.  Police officers arrested as many people as they could fit in their jail cells (totaling 138 persons).

June 8- Fire broke out at the shaft bottom of the North Butte Mining Company's Speculator Mine.  164 miners were trapped by unbreakable concrete bulkheads designed to limit trespassing and died in the fire.  In reaction  Butte miners, led by IWW men Tom Campbell? and Joe Shannon?, organized a new independent union, the Metal Mine Workers' Union.

June 9- Missouri National Guardsmen attacked the IWW headquarters on Kansas City.

June 11- Ten to twelve thousand independently organized miners in Butte, Montana led by Wobblies walked off the job to demand better working conditions, a $6 minimum daily wage, union recognition, and abolition of the rustling card (the card showed that a miner was allowed to work and did not affiliate with any union).

Mid-June- Washington Governor Ernest Lister appointed a special committee to investigate local labor conditions because of IWW pressure.

June 15- The Espionage Act was passed. Ostensibly enacted to prosecute war "spies," this Act was used more as a tool for quashing domestic antiwar speech.

The first convention of the Metal Mine Worker's Union No. 800 of the IWW was held in Bisbee, Arizona.

The Seattle Times and Post-Intelligencer printed an editorial which ordered citizens and soldiers to raid the local IWW hall and attack any member found.

June 16- Soldiers and sailors attacked Seattle's IWW headquarters and police arrested fifty-one Wobblies and three marines.

June 18- A general strike of lumber workers was called by the Lumber Workers Industrial Union of the IWW against the Inland Lumber Company in the Pacific Northwest.

June 19- U.S. Attorney for the Eastern district of Washington asserted that the IWW had made preposterous demands upon the region's farmers, which could not possibly be granted.

June 20- The Metal Mine Workers' Union asked Labor Secretary Wilson to initiate a federal investigation of Butte's labor problems.

June 23- The City Council of Duluth, Minnesota held a special meeting at which they passed a wartime emergency ordinance that stated that anyone in the city who did not have a visible means of support could be arrested and charged with vagrancy. Immediately police raided the local IWW hall and ten IWW members were arrested. Elizabeth Gurley Flynn, who was staying at a nearby hotel, was also arrested.

June 25- One hundred and thirty-four people who were involved in the anti-draft demonstration in Rockford, Illinois were indicted by Judge Landis.

The commissioner general and his chief law officer of the immigration bureau accepted the pro-German stereotype of the IWW and were urging the Department of Labor to adopt a policy to take every possible step to ending the IWW's spread of propaganda.

June 26- The IWW called out its members working the copper mines in Bisbee, Globe, Miami, Swansea, and Jerome, Arizona to strike scheduled to begin on the following day.  The miners list of demands included safer working conditions, the abolition of any kind of discriminatory hiring practice, more job security, a small wage increase, and some form of union recognition.

June 27- The strike called out by the IWW to be effective in the Arizona copper mining regions began.

Arthur Thorne, Secretary of the local IWW in Duluth, Minnesota, was sentenced to eighty-five days at a work farm by Municipal Judge Smallwood. He was arrested during a raid of the local IWW hall on 23 June 1917.

June 28- The trial of Elizabeth Gurley Flynn began in Duluth, Minnesota. She was arrested on 23 June 1917 and charged with vagrancy. Duluth police officers justified her arrest because she had no visible means of support.

July- Congresswoman Jeanette Rankin asks for federal protection for Butte copper miners.

Federal troops patrolled the mining regions of Arizona and Montana, the farms of Eastern Washington, and lumber districts of Washington and Oregon.

July 1- The Lumber Worker's Industrial Union called for a strike in the Spokane district to begin.

July 3- Mine owners and local businessmen in Jerome, Arizona organized the Jerome Loyalty League which armed its members and threatened to arrest any individual who interfered with copper production.

Sheriff Armer of Gila County made an appeal to the War Department for government troops to control rioting copper miners on strike in Bisbee and Globe, Arizona.  All large copper mines in Globe-Miami district suspended operations because of the strike.  An estimated 30-40% of the country's mine and smelter capacity had been put out of business by the continued spread of strikes by local copper circles.Metal Mine Workers' Union adopted resolutions which called for the government to assume control and management of the mines in Butte, Montana.

July 4- Assistant U.S. Attorney John McCourt charged that German agents were responsible for recuring strikes and uprisings of the IWW in coal mines in Pennsylvania following the arrest of IWW alien Joseph Graber.  Graber was arrested in Scantron, Pennsylvania on a presidential order for being a danger to the public peace and safety of the United States.

July 5- The Rockford Rebels arrested on 6 June 1917 were sentenced by Judge Landis in Freeport, Illinois.  117 people were sentenced from thirty to three hundred and sixty-six days of hard labor in the House of Correction in Chicago.

July 10- The Jerome Loyalty League clears the Arizona town of Wobblies using force.

July 11- Arizona County Sheriff Wheeler sets into operation a carefully contrived conspiracy against the IWW strikers by shutting off Bisbee from the outside world with the cooperation of the telephone, telegraph, and railroad companies.

U.S. Secretary Baker sent federal troops to Washington after the states' governor telegraphed Baker telling him that he feared the IWW would destroy crops and reservoirs.

42 IWW members who were involved in a failed deportation from Jerome, Arizona to California were released by Governor Campbell.

Federal Troops stationed near Ellensburg, Washington arrested fifty to sixty IWW members for interfering with crop harvesting and logging.

July 12- Arizona County Sheriff Wheelers' deputies began a vast Wobbly hunt in Bisbee, Arizona.  They captured 1,186 men and the deputies placed their prisoners on cattle cars for transportation to Hermanas, New Mexico where they were left stranded.  The deportees found temporary refuge at an army camp in Columbus, New Mexico. According to an army census of the deported men, 199 were native born Americans, 468 were citizens, 472 were registered under the selective draft law, and 433 were married.

Arizona Governor Campbell wired General Parker at Fort Sam Houston informing him of the deportations from Bisbee and asked for federal troops to be sent there at once.

The Washington State Council of Defense announced the appointment of a Home Defense Committee to deal with the IWW in

class=Section3>

Seattle. The committee recommended the organization of at least one regiment of the state militia to fight against the IWW and protect the harvest and closing of industrial plants.                           Federal mediators John McBride and G.W.P. Hunt in Globe, Arizona sent an appeal to the Department of Labor suggesting that President Wilson take action to stop further deportations of strikers from Bisbee and other Arizona towns in order to prevent sympathetic strikes and industrial paralysis.

Thirty-three Wobblies were deported from Fairbury, Nebraska.    ??check IW??

July 13 or 16- The Seattle district of the Lumber Workers' Industrial Union called a general strike of all lumber workers on the Pacific Coast for higher wages.

July 13- William Haywood writes to President Wilson demanding that the refugees deported from Bisbee be sent back to their homes.Governors of California, Arizona, Utah, Nevada, Idaho, Colorado, Oregon, and Wyoming adopted a common plan of action to control the Wobblies which they communicated to President Wilson (check).

Mid-July- The Justice Department commanded its field offices across the country to begin compiling information on the IWW. Specifically alluding to the unions possible violations of the Espionage Act and other wartime measures.

July 16- Assistant Attorney General Charles Warren prepared a circular for U.S. attorneys which recommended the effort to obtain the future plans of Wobblies, names of IWW leaders, and sources of income.

July 17- An industry wide walkout was declared to begin on this date by the IWW.

IWW Lumber Workers Industrial Union in Spokane declared a general strike. They demanded an eight hour work day, a six hour work week, better food and bunkhouse facilities and a minimum wage of sixty dollars a month.

Thirty-one striking IWW lumber workers were dragged from their beds in Leavenworth, Washington and deported to Wenatchee, Washington by civil and military authorities. Twenty-six were placed in the city jail and five others were put in Chelan County jail.

July 18- George Bell, chairman of the California Commission on Immigration and Housing, presented the Western Governors' anti-IWW scheme to the Council of National Defense.  The plan recommended that Wobblies be sent to concentration camps for the duration of the war, any mention of the IWW should be censored in all publications, and Wobblies should be punished for what they planned to do and not actually what they had done.

July 21- The county sheriff in Bisbee, Arizona rounded up and arrested men for vagrancy unless they had local "clearance" cards permitting them to work.

July 22- Thirty-five hundred men and women gathered at the Dreamland Rink in Seattle to express their solidarity with the striking lumber workers in the Pacific Northwest. Speakers included Kate Sadler, J.T. Doran, and T.F.G. Doughterty.

July 25- Thirty IWW men and women were corralled by 150 armed citizens in Bemidji, Minnesota and sent out of town on a train.

July 26- The Minnesota Commission of Public Safety led by ex-governor Lind summoned the chief of Chicago branch of the Bureau of Investigation to Minneapolis for a conference on the IWW situation. Lind suggested that the federal government prosecute the IWW leaders on charges of conspiring to violate the Espionage Act.

July 28- Solidarity published an anti-conscription feature.  The feature affirmed that IWW members who joined the military had always been expelled from the organization because of the IWW's opposition to capitalism and its' wars.  The editor added that drafted IWW members should mark their claims for exemption "IWW; opposed to war."Arizona mine owners call for protection by federal troops to reopen their mines and works.  Arizona's council of defense suggested that a round up of the Wobblies would make the labor problem disappear.

July 30- Bill Haywood wired President Wilson to threaten a general strike of metal miners and harvest workers if the government did not return the Bisbee deportees to their homes and families.

July 31- The Council of Defense of McKinley County in Gallup, New Mexico deported 32 IWW members from their city.

July 31-August 1- Vigilantes in Butte, Montana kidnap, torture, and hang  IWW organizer Frank Little.  Local officials did nothing to apprehend Little's murderer.

August- Federal troops raided IWW headquarters in Flathead County, Montana.  IWW members were arrested and held in Whitefish City Jail for several weeks without filing any charges against them.  Elsewhere in the state soldiers patrolled the towns initiating a system of forced labor for Wobblies.

August 3- Members of the Working Class Union (WCU) gathered at a Pontotoc County farm in Oklahoma in preparation for a march on Washington to force President Wilson to end the draft. A posse attacked the farm and three men were killed and four hundred and fifty were arrested. The day before WCU members ambushed a Seminole County Sheriff and his deputy in Oklahoma. Within hours raiding parties cut telegraph and telephone lines, burned railroad bridges, and allegedly dynamited oil pipelines. The revolt fueled antiradical sentiment in Oklahoma and the WCU were labeled as IWW.

IWW member Schoon was executed for the murder of a police officer.

August 4-Senator Culbertson, Chairman of the Committee on Judiciary, proposed an amendment to the Espionage Law which was intended to stop any activity of professional agitators, including those of the IWW. Attorney General Gregory recommended the amendment, which contemplated the extension of zones around forts, munition plants, and other places where war work was being carried on. Under this amendment agitators would not be allowed to enter these areas. August 10-The Lever Act, also known as the Food and Fuel Control Act, was passed by congress. This Act allowed the creation of the U.S. Food Administration and U.S. Fuel Administration by an Executive order, to assure the supply, distribution, and conservation of foods and fuel during World War I; facilitate the movement of foods and fuel and prevent monopolies and hoarding; and maintain Governmental control over foods and fuel chiefly by means of voluntary agreements and a licensing system. Federal food and fuel administrators were appointed for each State to implement the Administration's programs.

August 11- The governors of Oregon, Washington, Nevada, Montana, and Idaho met in Portland to plan for co-operation with the federal government in its war work and to organize for suppression of internal disorders and the IWW.

The IWW hall in Oakland, California was raided by soldiers in uniform. Police officers looked on until the soldiers had left.

August 13- Bill introduced in US Senate by Henry Lee Myers (Montana) which would later become Federal Sedition Act; bill is referred to Senate Judiciary Committee and ignored.

August 14- A number of Commercial Club members in Aberdeen, North Dakota clubbed IWW men, G.J. Bourg was held down by five men and beaten.

August 15- James Rowan, District Secretary of the IWW in Spokane, threatened a general strike in Washington, Oregon, Idaho, and Montana if the IWW's demands were not met by August 20.  Their demands included were the release of all IWW members, a ten hour work day in harvest fields, better sanitary conditions, no discrimination towards their organization, and various locals allowed to conduct business without interference.

August 16- A bill aimed to stop the activities of the IWW was introduced to the Senate by Senator King of Utah.  The bill made it punishable to bring about the breaking of contracts made by the U.S. for the manufacture and transportation of things needed by the government.

August 17- U.S. Senator Henry Ashurst of Arizona arose on the Senate floor to denounce the IWW.  Congressmen from the West joined the senator to demand action against the IWW.

?Soldiers raided the IWW hall in Port Angeles, Washington.

August 18- President Wilson appointed Federal Judge J. Harry Covington to undertake a special investigation of the labor situation in the Northwest and the  IWW to acquire evidence to be used against them.  Before the end of August federal officials were planning action against the IWW.  Former Minnesota Governor Lind recommended that the Justice, Labor, and Postal departments should coordinate to suppress the IWW.

August 19- Day of protest declared by the IWW for the lynching of Frank Little.

Federal troops raided Spokane's IWW headquarters and seized James Rowan and twenry-six other Wobblies for calling a general strike.  All of the men were interned.

? National guardsmen wrecked IWW headquarters in Port Angeles, Washington.  The men threw furniture and IWW papers into the bay.

August 20- General strike called by James Rowan in Washington was scheduled to begin and continue until the government released all class war prisoners.  The strike was effective in Montana, Idaho, Washington and Oregon.

August 21- Justice department led by Attorney General Gregory planned to strike against the IWW through the coordination of Justice, Labor, and Postal departments. Gregory informed

class=Section4>

President Wilson that he was planning a series of raids against the IWW.

August 22- Samuel Gompers suggested that the Council of National Defense eliminate the IWW by providing new federally sanctioned labor agencies to study and adjust industrial disputes.  The council resolved to appoint a special commission to investigate the deportation of workers from their homes.

August 25- President Wilson approves a committee appointed by the Council of National Defense to investigate the IWW throughout the country.

September- The strike led by the MMWU continued to cripple copper and zinc production in Montana

September 5- The Justice Department and local police officers raided IWW headquarters in thirty-three cities across the nation.

September 7- Louise Olivereau, a Seattle anarchist working as a stenographer for the Seattle Lumber Workers branch of the IWW, was arrested in Seattle, Washington after she had admitted to authorities that she had mailed a circular in August to drafted men urging them to be obedient to their own conscience but not to resist the draft if they believed it was right.

September 12- Secret service agents raided the home of Professor Scott Nearing and IWW headquarters in Toledo, Ohio. Nearing lectured on pacifism and wrote on anti-war topics. Special agents and deputy marshals raid two branches of the IWW in Milwaukee.

September 20- President Wilson appointed a special mediation commission headed by Secretary of Labor William B. Wilson to investigate wartime industrial conflicts and put an end to strikes.  The commission chose to investigate the Bisbee deportation in October.  Sheriff Wheeler refused to cooperate with the federal investigators.  President Wilson also urged the Justice department to institute criminal proceedings against the vigilantes on the dubious ground that they violated the conscription act by deporting men legally registered for the draft.

September 28- Chicago grand jury handed down indictments against 166 IWW members after an investigation of papers seized from a nationwide raid of IWW offices on 5 September 1917. The indictment named every member of the union executive board, the officers of every individual union, editors of every IWW publication, and the union's most popular lecturers. They were charged with conspiracy to sabotage the war effort, seize control of industry, overthrow the U.S. government, hinder registration of the draft and the violation of postal laws (this charge was later thrown out). Bill Haywood, Richard Brazier, George Andreychine, Ralph Chaplin, Vladimir Lossieff, Bert Lorton, Charles Rothfisher, Charles Plahn, and Herbert Mahler were arrested in Chicago.

September 29- IWW attorney George Vanderveer and General Secretary-Treasurer Bill Haywood advised all indicted Wobblies to surrender themselves for arrest.

September 30- The round up of IWW members indicted in Chicago extended to New York.  Elizabeth Gurley Flynn, Carlo Tresca, Arturo Giovanitti, and Giovanni Baldazzi were arrested and locked up in Tombs Prison in New York. Flynn, Tresca, Giovanitti, and Joseph Ettor fought for and won a severance of their cases from the other one hundred and sixty-three members indicted. Their cases were later dropped.

Two miners were slain in a shoot out between union miners and county officials in Harlan, Kentucky.  Some of the miners involved were indicted by the Chicago Federal Grand Jury on the charge of conspiracy.

October 1- President Wilson's labor commission left for its tour to survey general labor unrest in the U.S.  Instructions from the President included that particular attention should be directed at the AFL's claim that IWW activities were encouraged by corporations as a means of discrediting the extension of organized labor.  IWW members David Ingar, George Williams and Thomas Scarlett were arrested in Cleveland, Ohio for the indictment handed out in Chicago on 28 September 1917.

October 2- IWW executive board member Grover H. Perry was arrested in Salt Lake City, Utah for the indictment handed down on 28 September 1917 in Chicago. John Ahleen was also arrested in Minneapolis, Minnesota.

October 4- IWW member Charles R. Jacobs was arrested in Denver, Colorado for the indictment handed down in Chicago on 28 September 1917.

October 6- The California State Federation of Labor went on record against the IWW and recommended the expulsion of all members of that organization from unions of the AFL.

October 7- The examination of the records seized in the raids of IWW offices in September was completed by government officials.

October 13- Bill Haywood was denied release on bail by Judge Landis because he declined to accept the security.

October 14- Reverend Sydney Strong of Seattle made a plea defending the IWW and compared Wobblies to early Christians in an address to the National Council of Congressional Churches.  Strong faced expulsion from the Ministers' Federation.

October 15- Judge Haight of the U.S. District Court in Newark, New Jersey declared that all members of the IWW ought to be in jail when sentencing member Ralph Palumbo to ten months imprisonment for failing to register for the draft.

October 29- The IWW headquarters in Miami, Arizona was raided by calvary men.

The home of Carter Oil Company President J. Edgar Pew was bombed in Tulsa, Oklahoma. City, county and Federal officials asserted that it was a result of an IWW plot to terrorize the oil industry.

October 30- The U.S. Post Office Department suppressed the mailing of Solidarity by denying it the second class mailing privilege.

November 5- The IWW hall in Tulsa, Oklahoma was raided and eleven men were arrested.

November 6- The President’s Labor Mediation Commission finished their investigation of the 12 July 1917 Bisbee deportations. Their report concluded that the deportations were "wholly illegal and without authority in law, either State or Federal." The commission also declared that the constitutional rights of citizens were also violated.

November 7- President Wilson's Labor Mediation Commission telegraphed the President informing him that they had finished their investigation in the Arizona copper mines.  The group also assured him that the production of copper would continue without interruption from labor difficulties.

November 8- One of the eleven members arrested on 5 November 1917, Bernard Johnson, was placed on trial before Judge T.D. Evans and charged with vagrancy. The next day seventeen IWW members were found guilty. Eleven were men originally arrested on 5 November 1917 and six were people who came to testify for the defendants.

November 9- Seventeen IWW members were tarred and feathered in Tulsa, Oklahoma by a mob, known as the Knights of Liberty who was composed of the Chamber of Commerce and local police force. The seventeen IWW members were found guilty the day before for vagrancy and were kidnaped from the city jail.

November 13- Federal officers and the police raided a meeting of the IWW in Omaha, Nebraska and arrested about fifty members.

Fred Little, brother of IWW organizer Frank Little who was lynched in Butte, was arrested by Federal officers in Fresno, California for receiving seditious literature at the IWW headquarters.

November 14- IWW members assembled for an organization meeting in Nebraska City, Nebraska.  Government officials raided the hall and arrested 64 members.

November 20- A general roundup of IWW members occurred in Augusta and Eldorado, Kansas.  Fifty IWW members were arrested in Butler county.  Federal officers declared that the purpose of the raids was to rid the oilfields of undesirables and see if the men were registered for the draft.

November 21- Twenty-five IWW members were indicted in Fresno, California on the charge of conspiring to oppress citizens of the United States by demanding stated wages and certain terms from employers. This indictment was later dismissed.

November 23- The IWW headquarters in Tacoma, Washington was raided.

November 24- President Wilson's special labor commission made their report on the deportation of IWW members from Bisbee, Arizona public.  The commission severely criticized the persons responsible for deporting the IWW members and found that the deportations were planned by Bisbee citizens, including officials of the Phelps-Dodge and Calumet and Arizona mining interests.  The commission also found that deportation interfered with operation of the draft law and the leaders of the deportations used the local office of the Bell Telephone Company to and attempted to exercise censorship over parts of interstate telephone and telegraph lines.  The committee suggested that action should be taken against the Bisbee citizens who deported the IWW members.

November 30- Louise Olivereau, a Seattle anarchist working as the stenographer for the Seattle Lumber Workers branch of the IWW, was found guilty on six counts of "attempting to cause insubordination, disloyalty, mutiny and refusal of duty in the military" and three for unlawfully using the mails to distribute treasonable literature in Seattle, Washington. Earlier in August Olivereau had sent out a circular to drafted men in Seattle that urged them "obedience to your own conscience...we do not ask you to resist the draft IF YOU BELIEVE THE DRAFT IS RIGHT."

December- By this point in time every first line IWW leader was behind bars and restricted.

December 1- The IWW men rounded up in Kansas were charged with violating the Lever Act of 10 August 1917 in Wichita, Kansas.  The act made it illegal to interfere with the production of fuel, oil, natural gas, food, or farm products.

The general strike of lumber workers against the Inland Empire ended in victory for the strikers.

December 3- Louise Olivereau, who was convicted on 30 November 1917 for mailing out a circular which questioned the draft, was sentenced to ten years in prison at Canyon City, Colorado, the only federal prison for women in the west.

December 7- The group of IWW men from Drumwright, Oklahoma and Augusta and Eldorado, Kansas were given a hearing on the charge of vagrancy in Wichita, Kansas.

December 15- The Chicago IWW defendants were arraigned.

December 16- The Socialist Party adopted a second resolution which declared its support of the IWW.

December 17- An alleged assassination attempt of California Governor William D. Stephens took place. A bomb was placed in the back of the governor's mansion. The chief of police immediately suspected the IWW and arrested fifty-three men who were in or around the local IWW hall.The IWW General Defense Committee Office and general headquarters in Chicago were closed by federal officers so they could seize all papers that would be of use to the prosecution and defense team of the 166 IWW men indicted.

December 18- IWW member Charles W. Koenig was arrested in connection to the bombing at the California Governor's Mansion.

December 20- Metal Mine Workers' Union in Butte ends its' walkout.

The offices of the Industrial Worker, Lumber Workers' Industrial Union no. 500, and the Seattle Defense Committee was raided. Six IWW members were arrested.

December 22- IWW members William Hood and G.F. Voetter were caught by police with a soap box filled with dynamite at the IWW headquarters in Sacramento, California.  They were arrested for transporting explosives and held because they were believed to be connected to the attempted assassination of Governor Stephens.

December 23- The IWW St. Maries Hall was raided in Spokane, Washington. The local secretary was arrested and charged with criminal syndicalism.

December 26- A threatening letter was sent to Governor Stephens demanding $50,000 or the detonation of nine bombs scattered throughout Sacramento, California.

December 28- Charles Krieger was arrested in Tulsa, Oklahoma for being an IWW member.

December 29- IWW defense committee member James Price was arrested outside of the San Francisco IWW hall.  Theodora Pollok and Albert Fox went to the San Francisco Hall of Justice  to arrange bail for Price.  Both were arrested and Pollok was subjected to a medical examination intended for prostitutes.

December 31- Federal warrants were issued for International Workers' Defense League organizers Theodora Pollok, Albert L. Fox, and James Price on the charge of conspiring with the 51 IWW members in Sacramento County Jail to violate the Espionage Act.

Federal warrants were served to IWW members G.F. Voetter and William Hood for violating the Espionage Act in Sacramento, California.

The IWW hall in Sacramento, California was shut down by police officers.

1918

North Dakota and Washington passed criminal syndicalist laws following the Everett massacre.

January 1- The general strike of lumber workers in the Pacific Northwest ended in victory.

January 2- Theodora Pollok was released on a $5000 bail.

January 4- Defense Attorney Vanderveer withdrew all pleas of not guilty for the Chicago IWW defendants.  He substituted motions for bills of particulars for 67, bills of demurrer for 83, and pleas of abatement for 23.

January 5- A printing plant belonging to the Piggott Printing Concern in Seattle was destroyed by a mob.  The printers published The Seattle Daily Call and the Industrial Worker.

The IWW headquarters in Denver was raided.

IWW member Charles Krieger had a preliminary hearing in Tulsa, Oklahoma.

January 7- The Federal Grand Jury met to hear the evidence against the 55 Wobblies held in Sacramento, California for violation of the Espionage Act.

An article in the Sacramento Bee claimed that Germany was financing the IWW in a plot to destroy the industrial plants and crops on the Pacific coast.

January 12- G. Murl Gordon and J. Fred Drake were arrested in Seattle for being ringleaders of the mob which wrecked the Pigott Printing Concern on January 5.  They were both members of the Minutemen of Seattle.

January 14- A committee representing all federal officials in Seattle unanimously agreed that the deportation of alien IWW members would be the most persuasive technique of repression.

January 15 or 16?- The trial for twenty IWW members was scheduled to begin in Fresno, California.  They were accused of circulating seditious literature. The trial date was moved to 2 April 1918.

January 16- A labor advisory council was named by Labor Secretary Wilson.

Representative Edwin Y. Webb of North Carolina of the House Judiciary Committee presents H.R. 8753, intended to amend the Espionage Act of 15 June 1917; intended to prevent obstruction of the sale of Liberty Bonds. This bill would be amended to become the sedition act. From 14 March to 2 April, bill is in Senate Judiciary Committee where it is amended by Senator Walsh (Mont.) to include the Montana Sedition Act (see 16 & 23 February).

January 21- In a letter Clarence B. Douglas, General Secretary of the Chamber of Commerce of Tulsa, Oklahoma recommended a coat of tar and feathers for Sacramentans to handle the IWW to Harry S. Maddox, General Secretary of the Sacramento Chamber of Commerce.

January 25- The Federal Grand jury opened an investigation of the IWW members arrested in a raid in Sacramento.

January 26-  In Indianapolis the United Mine Workers expelled the IWW from membership in the organization.

February 1- A telegram was sent to Assistant U.S. Attorney P.H. Johnson (the prosecuting attorney on the Sacramento IWW trial) from Albert Fox and Fred Esmond of the IWW Defense Committee in San Francisco.  The telegram stated that a remonstrance had been made to the U.S. Attorney General Gregory and U.S. Attorney Preston calling their attention to the inhuman treatment of IWW federal prisoners held in Sacramento. Esmond was arrested and held for eight months incommunicado because his telegram was viewed as a riot act of treason.

February 3- Street railway workers in St. Louis go on strike.  Three strikers were shot and wounded during riots following the call of the strike.  The workers demanded the absolute unionization of the company's employees,, an increase in wages, and reduction in hours of continuous daily employment.  Police raided the headquarters of the IWW and arrested thirty men.

February 5- U.S. Commissioner Francis J. Krull dismissed the charges of violating the Espionage Law against International Workers' Defense League members Theodora Pollok, James Price, Albert L. Fox, and Basil Safforis because of lacking evidence in San Francisco.

February 8- Fifty-five IWW members were indicted by the Federal Grand Jury in Sacramento, California on charges of conspiracy to block the activities of the government in the carrying on of the war. IWW member Julius Weinberg was indicted in Sacramento and Chicago for violation of the Espionage Act and held under a presidential warrant in Sacramento. In addition members William Hood and G.F. Voetter was charged with transporting dynamite without a permit.

February 12- Theodora Pollok and Frederick V. Esmond were released on $5000 bail.

February 13- William Haywood, charged with conspiracy and sedition, was released on $15,000 bail in Chicago, Illinois.

In Reno, Nevada a section of the Alliance of Labor under the auspices of the AFL was formed for the purposes of fighting the IWW.

February 16- The fifty-five IWW members charged with violating the Espionage Act in Sacramento, California were arraigned before Federal District Judge Cushman of Washington. William Hood pleaded guilty to the charge of transporting dynamite illegally.

Attorney Nat Coghlan entered a plea of not guilty on the charge of violating the Espionage Act on behalf of the fifty-five members.

Bill introduced to Montana legislature which by William C. Crisman which was the same as that entered into US Senate on 13 August 1917 by Senator Myers; bill would become Federal Sedition Act. This bill makes it a crime to "utter, print, write, or publish" disloyal language about the government, constitution or armies; to show contempt toward the army, navy, flag or government; to encourage resistance to the government; or encourage the curtailment of production in any industry crucial to the war with the intent of disrupting the war effort.

February 23- Portland's IWW headquarters was raided and fifty men were arrested.

Sedition act becomes law in Montana.

February 27- Twenty-six IWW members which were arrested on 23 February 1918 were brought to a preliminary trial in Portland, Oregon.  Evidence was brought forth to show an IWW conspiracy plot of destruction throughout the Northwest.

March 2- The U.S. Department of Labor orders immigration officers in Seattle to conduct a general round up of alien disturbers in the Pacific Northwest that preaches sabotage or anarchy.

March 11- Arizona Governor Tom Campbell testified at the Chicago IWW trial that German money, Mexicans poisoned by Wilhelmstrasse propaganda, radical socialists and the IWW were working hand in hand to upset the American War Program in the Southwest.

March 14(Sellars) or 6(bloodstained trail)look at article- A federal grand jury returned an indictment against thirty-five IWW members in Wichita, Kansas for violation of the Lever Act of 10 August 1917. In September this indictment was quashed but a new one was drawn up.

March 16- A crowd of IWW members and sympathizers attacked Sheriff E.B. Noland in Saint Maries, Idaho. Twenty-one IWW members were arrested for rioting. The city went under military control and would not allow citizens to leave town without written permission.

March 16- The California Farm Labor Committee of the State Council of Defense recommends the suppression of the IWW to Governor Stephens.

March 21- Chairman Chamberlain of the Senate Military Committee declared it was necessary to send soldiers to the Northwest for protection from the IWW to obtain timber.

March 25- IWW Secretary Peter Petaja and fourty IWW men were arrested in Butte, Montana.

The IWW offices in Redding, California were raided.

March 29- Fourteen of the Chicago IWW defendants were dismissed from custody in federal court in Chicago on a motion of the government.

April-Spokane's IWW hall was raided and one hundred members were arrested.

The Sabotage Act of April 1918 was passed. The act deemed the Arizona copper mines as "war premises" and their output "war materials."  It allowed the arrest of any persons near the mines that was trying to disturb production.

April 1- Judge Kenesaw Mountain Landis in Chicago began the first wartime trial against the IWW.  One hundred and thirteen Wobblies were brought before the judge and each was charged with one hundred separate crimes. One hundred and sixty-six were actually indicted on 28 September 1917 but forty-seven were not apprehended, one was found dead, four got a severance of their case, and one case was dismissed. George Vanderveer, Otto Christenson, and Caroline Lowe represented the IWW men. The trial was postponed until the next day because of the illness of one member.

April 3- Sentence was given to W.M. Nelson in Spokane, Washington on charges of criminal syndicalism.

April 5- The Spokane IWW Hall and the offices of the Lumber Workers' Union No. 500 were raided by federal officials.

April 6- The prosecuting team against the  Chicago IWW defendants, led by Charles F. Clyne, accuses the court of jury tampering by stating that IWW agents approached every man called for jury service. Judge Landis dismisses the 200 jury panel members.

April 7- A mob destroys the IWW hall in Everett, Washington.

The IWW hall in Arlington, Washington was raided.

April 12- The San Francisco IWW Headquarters was raided by the police neutrality squad.

April 13- A mob of lumber trust sympathizers in Sedro-Wooley, Washington invaded the hotel Wobbly D.S. Seitz was staying.  The men took him from his bed and took him to the outskirts of town where he was tarred and feathered.

April 15- A mob in Centralia, Washington wrecked the town's IWW hall.

April 30- A bill designed to crush out the IWW by Senator Walsh of Montana was approved by a Senate Judiciary sub-committee as a substitute for a similar measure proposed by Senator King of Utah.  Walsh's bill made organizations like the IWW unlawful, providing ten years imprisonment and a $5000 fine for membership, management, circulation of their literature, advocacy of their doctrines, or rental of rooms for meetings.

May 1- 1200 men and women who were mostly IWW members were taken in a raid of a meeting held in Detroit, Michigan.

May 2- The IWW hall in Seattle, Washington was raided by local police. Two hundred and twenty-five members were arrested.

May 6- The King-Walsh bill, or commonly referred to as the "anti-IWW" bill, was passed by the United States Senate making it unlawful to purpose by physical force, violence, or injury to bring about any governmental, social, industrial, or economic change in the United States.  The bill was declared to be aimed against the IWW.

Twenty-five IWW members were scheduled to appear before Judge Bledsoe in Fresno, California for charges of conspiracy to strike.  The trial was postponed.

IWW headquarters in Patterson, New Jersey was raided.

Benjamin Schraeger, editor for IWW publications and a defendant in the trail in Chicago for violation of the Espionage Act, announced that an agreement had been made with the National Socialist Party to raise defense funds for union members.

May 7- House approves H.R. 8753, the Federal Sedition Act of 1918 (see 16 January).

May 15- Twenty of the most prominent citizens in Bisbee, Arizona were arrested for their involvement in the deportation of over one thousand IWW members on 12 July 1917. The week before the men were indicted on the charge of conspiracy to deprive a citizen of the United States of his legal rights in violation of section 19 of the penal code.

May 16- President Wilson signs Federal Sedition Act of 1918 into law (see 7 May above).

May 17- At the IWW trial in Chicago the prosecution team introduced the 15 June 1917 edition of Solidarity as evidence to show that members of IWW were conspiring to start a working class revolution that would lead to the overthrowing of the American government.

May 18- Claude R. Porter, Special Prosecutor for the trial against the IWW in Chicago, introduced correspondence between James M. Slovick, Secretary of the Marine Transport Workers, and William D. Haywood as evidence to show that the IWW declared war on the American government in retaliation for a declaration of war against Germany.

May 24- The Denver IWW headquarters was raided.

IWW headquarters in Omaha was raided and fifteen members were arrested.

The twenty-one men indicted at the U.S. District Court in Tucson, Arizona for their involvement in the deportation of over one thousand IWW members in Bisbee on 12 July 1917 filed a demure to the indictments on the grounds that the facts as alleged did not constitute a violation of federal law. They were charged with conspiracy to deprive citizens of the rights guaranteed to them by the constitution and laws of the United States.

June 3- No indictments were found by a federal grand jury against the twenty-eight IWW members held for six months after the raid of the Construction Workers' Convention in Omaha, Nebraska.

June 4- IWW members who were convicted of under the criminal syndicalism laws in St. Maries, Idaho were sentenced from one to ten years in prison.

June 21- IWW members William Hood and G.F. Voetter were brought to trial for the possession of dynamite without a government license in Sacramento, California.  Hood pleaded guilty before Judge Van Fleet for violating federal explosive laws and took full responsibility.

The U.S. House of Representatives passes the Alien Anarchist Deportation Bill authorizing immediate deportation of aliens subscribing in whole or in part to the tenets of anarchism.

 June 22- G.F. Voetter was charged with unlawfully having dynamite and sentenced to serve ten months in the San Francisco County Jail and pay a two-hundred dollar fine.  Hood was sentenced to fifteen  months in Alameda County Jail and pay a seven-hundred dollar fine.

July 12 or 18- After being held in jail Charles Krieger, who was arrested in Tulsa on 28 December 1917 for being an IWW member, was indicted on the charge of conspiracy to obstruct the draft and the destruction of Carter Oil Company President J. Edgar Pew's home in Tulsa, Oklahoma.

August 28- Twenty-six men were killed in an explosion at the Pacific Coast Coal Mine in Burnett, Washington.

August 30- 93 of the Chicago IWW defendants were sentenced from one to twenty years of imprisonment at Leavenworth, Kansas on the convicted charge of conspiracy to overthrow the American War Program.  The defendants were also given fines from $20,000 to $30,000.

September- Indictments were brought in for 49 Wobblies in Omaha (Twenty one were Chicago defendants) and 31 members in Spokane Washington (including William Haywood and Vincent St. John).

? A round up of IWW members took place in Fresno, California. Twenty men were jailed on charges of arson.

September 4- Sioux City IWW hall raided and forty Wobblies were arrested.

A bomb exploded at the entrance of a Chicago post office seven floors under where William Haywood was waiting to be taken to the Federal Penitentiary in Leavenworth.  Ten minutes after the blast Acting Chief Alcock issued an order to round up IWW members in the city.  Two IWW headquarters were raided and 50 Wobblies were arrested.

A Federal Grand Jury in Sacramento indicted sixteen IWW members, including all secretaries of Los Angeles, San Pedro and Sacramento, for causing a series of fires in industrial plants throughout California.

September 6- The 93 IWW men who were sentenced on 30 August 1918 in Chicago for violating the Espionage Act were taken from the Chicago County Jail for transportation to Leavenworth Federal Penitentiary.

September 13- 500 men walkout for the general strike in the Northwest.

September 24- Another indictment was returned for the thirty-five IWW members indicted on 14 March 1918 in Wichita which added five different conspiracy charges in the time period of the time ranging from 6 April 1917 to 24 September 1918. The charges were conspiracy to murder "persons unknown," to obstruct and interfere with the Selective Service Act, to interfere with certain manufacturers "unknown to the grand jurors" who had contracts to supply the government with war supplies, violation of the Lever Act of 10 August 1917 and hampering the production and distribution of oil.

September 26- An indictment returned at Spokane, Washington for twenty-seven IWW members on the charge of conspiracy to hinder the U.S. government in the prosecution of the war by calling strikes in the mining and lumbering industries.

October- Under the command of Mayor Omar Bradley federal troops joined with local police and Anaconda gunmen in raiding Butte IWW headquarters, closing down union newspapers (Butte Bulletin), and beating workers on the city's streets.

The Immigration Act of October 1918 was drafted and backed by the Department of Justice and the Bureau of Immigration.  The act proposed to remove any existing special immunities that favored radical aliens.

October 8- 67 IWW members were arraigned in the Sacramento Federal Court before Judge Van Fleet and asked for a plea.

October 16- IWW member Charles Krieger was scheduled to be released from Muskogee Federal Prison after his indictment given in July 1918 was dropped, but was rearrested at the door of the jail and charged with having seditious literature in his possession, hindering the successful prosecution of the war and dynamiting Carter Oil Company President J. Edgar Pew’s home in Tulsa, Oklahoma.

October 27- A preliminary hearing for IWW member Charles Krieger was held in Tulsa, Oklahoma. He was not allowed council representation.

November 8- Dr. Marie Equi's trial began in Portland, Oregon on charges of violating the Espionage Act.

November 15- At the Pan American Labor Conference in Laredo, Texas American organized leaders headed by Samuel Gompers declared their opposition to Bolshevism and the IWW.

November 25- Mass meeting was held at Madison Square Garden in New York City.  Two resolutions were decided upon.  The first was the indorsement of the plan of action suggested by organized labor on the Pacific Coast to prevent the hanging of Tom Mooney and the second was the demand of the return of American and allied troops from Russian territory.  The meeting was broken up by over one thousand soldiers and sailors in uniform.

December 3- Judge William W. Morrow quashed the indictments of 21 men who were charged with the Bisbee deportations.

December 9- The second wartime trial against the IWW opens in Sacramento before Judge F.H. Rudken. This trial consolidated the cases for members arrested in Fresno and Sacramento. Forty-seven defendants were brought before the judge for disloyalty, interference with the draft, and arson of crops and lumber.  Five men (James Nolan, Henry C. Evans, Ed Burns, R.J. Blaine, and Frank Travis) died of tuberculosis and Spanish influenza while in custody. The case was distinguished by the "silent defense" of forty-three of the defendants, who had no counsel and offered no evidence, in order to express their lack of faith in the ability of the court to do them justice. Only Theodora Pollok, Albert Fox, and Basil Saffores had legal representation.

December 18- The Workers Liberty Defense Union held a founding conference at Forwards Hall in New York City. The organization was founded to support wartime labor and political prisoners.

December 20- Federal agents invaded IWW general defense headquarters in Chicago.  IWW literature was barred from the mails.

1919

January 16- Forty-six IWW members charged with violating the Espionage Act were found guilty in Sacramento, California.

January 17- Forty-three IWW members were sentenced by Judge F.H. Rudkin to prison terms ranging from one to ten years at the Federal Prison at Leavenworth Federal Penitentiary under the Espionage Act in Sacramento, California.

January 20- Eighteen men were taken out of the IWW hall in Chicago by authorities to be finger printed at a local federal building and then released.

January 21- 30,000 shipbuilders in Seattle go on strike over the lowered wage rate in the shipyards.  The strike was called by the Seattle Metal Trades Council.

January 22- The IWW defense office in Spokane was raided by police and five members were arrested.

. January 24- Dr. George W. Kirchway, federal director of unemployment for New York state, declared that there were ten million unemployed people in the United States.

February- Textile workers in Lawrence, Massachusetts went on strike to secure a forty-eight hour workweek with fifty-four hours pay from the American Woolen Company.

February 3- Strike began in Patterson, New Jersey for a 47-hour week in silk mills.

February 6- The Seattle general strike begins. 30,000 workers in Seattle walked out on a general strike to support the 30,000 shipbuilders who had began their strike in January.

February 8- Mine operators of the Jerome Verde district in Arizona announced a wage reduction of $0.75 a day.  In response the miners staged a walkout.  City authorities arrested forty-two miners and two IWW men were deported.

A strike began in Butte, Montana called by the IWW after the reduction of the miners' wages.

A joint delegation of IWW and Workers' International Industrial Union representatives from New York took the platform at an IWW strike meeting in Paterson, New Jersey.  Several policemen escorted the delegates out of town.

 February 11- Fifty-seven men and one woman, many who were IWW members or foreign labor agitators, arrived in New York City for deportation. Commissioner General of Immigration Anthony Caminetti ordered the deportation. When they reached Ellis Island fourteen prisoners were beaten by guards and most were so badly hurt that they could not be deported. IWW attorney Caroline Lowe stated she would sue out habeas corpus for the members of the union.

Pearson’s says the 10th

 The general strike in Seattle ended.

February 12- U.S. District Judge John C. Knox issued a writs of habeas corpus for forty-nine of the fifty-eight radicals waiting for deportation on Ellis Island.

February 13- The New York Times reported that secret servicemen disclosed the details of an IWW plot to kill President Wilson after the arrest of Pietro Pierre in Cleveland.  Pietro Pierre was thought to be the chosen murderer. A total of one hundred and sixty-two IWW members were arrested in Chicago during raids of IWW halls. The arrival of IWW members from the West and reports of an IWW plot to assassinate President Wilson spurred the numerous raids.

Deputy sheriffs, city policemen, and federal officers raid the I.W.W. headquarters in Seattle, Washington three times and arrest thirty-nine men. The next day all but four men were released.

Judge John C. Knox in New York City dismissed the habeas corpus issued on behalf of the fifty-eight IWW members held on Ellis Island awaiting deportation.

February 18- Thirteen IWW men and women were arrested while picketing at silk mills in Paterson, New Jersey.

February 25- Judge Redmond S. Cole quashed the indictment against Charles Krieger in Tulsa, Oklahoma because he felt the state’s case was based upon hearsay and none of the testimony from the preliminary hearing implemented Krieger.

February 26- Carter Oil Attorneys, led by Austin Flint Moss, in Tulsa, Oklahoma swore out a new warrant before a judge for Charles Krieger on the felony charge of destroying a building with explosives on 29 October 1917.

February 27- The offices of the IWW paper New Solidarity were raided in Chicago.

February 28- Petro Nigra was sentenced by Judge Landis to eighteen months in Leavenworth Penitentiary in Chicago.  Nigra was one of the 166 indicted IWW men in 1917 but was too ill to be taken into court.

Late February/Early March- The third Butte strike ended when the AFL broke the strike by bring in scabs.

March 1- Four IWW men-Eustract Dichellis, Silverio Dicnellis, Dominick Columbo, and James Pargin-were killed while attempting to blow up the mill of the American Woolen Company in Franklin, Massachusetts.

March 6?- Thirty-one IWW members were indicted in Seattle for their connection to the general strike in the Northwest.

March 9- Two hundred IWW sympathizers were arrested in a raid at an IWW gathering  in Waterbury, Connecticut.

March 10- The 33 IWW defendants in Wichita, Kansas was scheduled to begin their trial.  They were charged with hindering oil production and starting riots. The trial was postponed for five months.

March 12- IWW hall in Kansas City, Missouri was raided.

March 13- Labor Secretary Wilson decided to proceed with the deportation of 37 alien radicals held on Ellis Island.

March 15- Three Russians arrested in a raid of an IWW gathering in Waterbury, Connecticut were sentenced to six months in jail for unlawful assembly.

In the conference of all Western Canadian Labor the group decided to separate from the AFL and adopt the plan for "one big union."

March 17- Twelve IWW members detained on Ellis Island waiting for deportation were released under an order from commissioner General of Immigration Caminetti in Washington.

March 27- Attorney General Palmer disclosed that two hundred IWW members would be held indefinitely and their cases were referred to the Department of Labor.

April 2- 38 of the convicted IWW members who were tried in Chicago and held in Leavenworth Federal Penitentiary for the violation of the Espionage Act were ordered admitted on bail by the Federal Circuit court of appeals, pending a review of their case by that tribunal.  Haywood was given a $15,000 bail.

April 10- A mandate announced the immediate imprisonment of Eugene V. Debs for the violation of the Espionage Act.

April 30- The Criminal Syndicalism Act of 1919 was a law passed in California making it a felony to encourage or provoke, in anyway, violence with a political motivation. It was used to outlaw speaking out against the government and to punish individuals who did so. The act’s main target was the IWW.

36 bombs were discovered by post office authorities throughout the county.  The bombs were all mailed from New York City and addressed to Postmaster General A.S. Burleson, Attorney General A.Mitchell, Judge K.M. Landis of Chicago, John D. Rockefeller, J.P. Morgan, Mayor Ole Hanson of Seattle, Associate Justice Oliver Wendell Holmes of the U.S. Supreme Court, Mayor John F. Hylan of New York City, Secretary of Labor William B. Wilson, Police Commissioner Richard Enright of New York City, Commissioner of Immigration Frederic C. Howe at Ellis Island, U.S. Commissioner of Immigration Anthony Caminetti of Washington DC, Solicitor of the Post Office Department William H. Lemar of Washington DC, W. Funck of the Department of Justice Bureau of Investigation in New York City, Senator of Georgia Thomas W. Hardwick, District Attorney of San Francisco Charles M. Fickert, Assistant District Attorney of San Francisco Edward Cunha, W.M. Wood of Boston, Governor William C. Sproul of Pennsylvania, Attorney General W.J. Shaffer of Pennsylvania, T. Larry Eyre of Chester, Pennsylvania, and Chairman of the Immigration Committee of the House of Representatives John L. Burnett. Authorities blamed the IWW for the bomb plot.

Early May- The New York World declared war on the IWW.

May 1- Three more bombs were discovered by post office authorities in Salt Lake City, Utah and Salisbury, North Carolina. They were addressed to North Carolina Senator Lee S. Overman, Utah Senator William H. King, and Utah Prosecuting Attorney Frank K. Nebecker.

May 5- IWW convention in Chicago resolved unanimously in favor of a nationwide general strike aimed at liberating all prisoners of the class war.

May 6- Police raid Pittsburgh's IWW office.

May 27??- The criminal anarchy case, The State of Washington vs. James Bruce, began in Seattle. IWW member Bruce was defended by Vanderveer.

June 2-3- Midnight bombs exploded in New York, Boston, Pittsburgh, Philadelphia, Cleveland, Newtonville (Massachusetts), Washington D.C., and Paterson.  Bombs were placed at the homes of Judge Albert F. Hayden in Boston, State Representative Leland Powers in Newtonville, Judge Charles Nott in New York,  Judge Landis in Chicago, C.U. Cassidy (an official at the Pittsburgh Plate Glass Company) in Pittsburgh, Jeweler Louis Jajieky in Philadelphia, Mayor Harry L. Davis in Cleveland, Attorney General A. Mitchell Palmer in Washington D.C., and silk manufacturer Max Gold in Paterson.  A bomb was also placed at a Chicago post office where several people were killed and the Catholic Church, Our Lady of Victory, in Philadelphia.  IWW men were rounded up by police along the East coast in connection to the bombings. Forty-five were arrested in Cleveland, Ohio and twenty-two were arrested in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania.

June 3- John Johnson, IWW member in Pittsburgh, was arrested for after a gunfight with police at the local headquarters. He allegedly gave the name of the bomb maker responsible for the explosions earlier that day. Stirred up by the midnight bombings, leaders of congress in Washington D.C. looked to enact legislation that would suppress anarchism and Bolshevism. Senator Walsh of Montana offered a bill that would outlaw the displaying of a red flag or distributing literature advocated violence against the government. Senator King of Utah proposed bills that would have made it a capital offence to transport a bomb in interstate commerce or belong to an organization that advocated the overthrowing of the government. Senator Edge of New Jersey offered legislation that would create a Joint Economic Commission to devise a policy of closer cooperation between employers and employees which would help solve labor problems.William J. Flynn, former head of the secret service, was appointed the Chief of the Bureau of Investigation of the Department of Justice and Francis P. Garvan was appointed as Assistant Attorney General. Their main objective was to investigate anarchists and other radicals who might have been involved with the midnight bomb plots.  June 5-IWW member E.J. McGurty was arrested for manufacturing the bombs that exploded on June 2nd in Pittsburgh.

June 6-Two men who were found to carry IWW cards, Steve Stoykoff and Pano Trpoff, were arrested in Detroit for possible connection with the midnight bombings on 2 June 1919.

June 7- Judge John C. Pollock of the U.S. District Court in Wichita, Kansas sustained a motion to quash the indictments against the fifty-two IWW members held there. The questions at issue was the matter of stating the venue of the indictment, validity of the Espionage Act and the right to seize IWW property.

June 10- Judge Augustus N. Hand dismissed the writs of habeas corpus for six IWW members from Seattle who were awaiting deportation on Ellis Island. Hand however found that there was no evidence to show that E.E. McDonald, who had sued out a writ, had advocated the destruction of property and he was allowed to remain in the country.

June 12- Attorney General A. Mitchell Palmer requested that the House Appropriations Committee reserve two million dollars for the Department of Justice to fight radicalism.

June 21- The New York City IWW headquarters was raided.

June 23- Thomas Hooker, Chairman of the California District Organization Committee, appeared before Judge Graham in Fresno, California charged with criminal syndicalism.

July 4- The general strike called by the IWW was scheduled to begin throughout the country to protest the imprisonment of Tom Mooney.

July 8- Bonds for release of William Haywood from Leavenworth Penitentiary were approved by U.S. District Attorney Charles F. Clyne and the court of appeals.

July 9- Sixty-four men in Arizona were named defendants in complaints filled charging kidnapping and assault in connection with the deportation of more than 1,100 alleged members of the IWW and sympathizers before Judge W.C. Jacks in Bisbee, Arizona.

July 10- Fifty-one total arrests were made in Bisbee, Arizona for the deportations of IWW members.

July 16- State police in Rome, New York made wholesale arrests of the IWW to prevent a general strike.

July 26- Clyde Hough was released from Leavenworth Penitentiary on bond to appeal his conviction of conspiracy charges.

July 27- Ralph Chaplin and Francis Miller were released from Leavenworth Penitentiary on bond to appeal their conviction of conspiracy charges.

July 28- William Haywood was released from Leavenworth Penitentiary on bond to appeal his conviction of conspiracy charges.

Fall- Angelo Faggi, editor of the Il Nuovo Proletario, was deported.

September 21- The New York Times ran an article entitled "A Nation Strike-Ridden" which listed 121 walkouts and 53 threatened strikes.

September 22- The Great Steel Strike called by the National Committee for organizing iron and steel worker mills began of all workers in iron and steel mills not operating under union agreements.  More than 350,000 miners walked out across the nation.

The trial for Charles Krieger, charged with setting explosives at Carter Oil Company President J. Edgar Pew’s home on 29 October 1917 was scheduled to begin in Tulsa, Oklahoma. The trial was postponed until 6 October 1919.

September 28- Riot broke out in Omaha, Nebraska.  Major General Leonard Wood blamed the IWW for the riot.

October- The Steel Trust called in four thousand U.S. troops to break the strike of steel workers in Gary, Indiana.

October 3- Seventeen IWW members were arrested and indicted on account of being IWW members.

October 4- A riot occurred in Gary, Indiana.  Five hundred steel strikers charged police. The local sheriff asked the government to send in federal troops.

October 6- Charles Krieger's trial was scheduled to begin in Tulsa, Oklahoma. The trial actually began on 23 October 1919.

October 7- Lumber Workers' Industrial Union No. 500 called a lumber strike at a mass meeting in Spokane, Washington to effect Eastern Washington, Northern Idaho, and Montana.  The strikers demanded the release of all class war prisoners, immediate withdrawl of troops from Russia, minimum wage scale of five dollars a day, not more than one dollar a day for board, eight hours from camp to camp, free blankets, sheets and pillows, bath house, dry room and wash room to be furnished seven days a week: right of free speech, free press and free assemblage, all men to be hired on the job and not through employment agencies, and no discrimination against union men.

October 8- General Strike was called by the Metal Mine Workers' Union in Butte, Montana.

October 14- A conspiracy to destroy government property and begin an uprising was allegedly discovered by authorities in Gary, Indiana. In reaction the Department of Justice and Major General Leonard Wood declared a drive against radicals in the United States. Andrew Ivanhoff, Anton Gorski, and De Jurge were arrested in Gary, Indiana for allegedly plotting the bombs that detonated on June 2.

October 23- The trial for Charles Krieger, charged with setting off explosives at the home of Carter Oil Company President J. Edgar Pew’s home on 29 October 1917, began in Tulsa, Oklahoma. After Defense Attorney Fred Moore’s eighteen cross examination, the prosecution’s witness Hubert Vowells admitted that he had confessed to blowing up Pew’s home for a bribe given by Krieger because Pew and other Carter Oil officials promised him they would use their influence to have him released and placed in the army.

November 10- After forty-one hours of deliberation jurors informed Judge Cole that they could not reach a verdict in the trial of Charles Krieger. Cole declared a mistrial and ordered Krieger’s bail to be set at $2500. The second trial was to occur six months later and would lead to an acquittal in June 1920.

November 11-  Centralia, Washington  Incident—Centralia's American Legionnaires planned to destroy the local IWW hall during an Armistice Day parade .  Wobblies defended the hall with arms which led to a bloody gunfight.  The Legionnaires castrated and lynched Wobbly Wesley Everest.  Ten IWW members were tried and convicted for conspiring to murder two of the legionnaire marchers.

IWW headquarters in Portland, Oregon were raided.  All aliens that were arrested were deported.

November 12- In reaction to the Centralia Armistice Day Incident, cities in Western Washington arrested IWW members and raided their headquarters.  One hundred and twenty-seven IWW members were jailed during raids in four cities.

November 13- IWW headquarters and the office of the Seattle Union Record were raided in Oregon and Washington.  Seventy-four IWW members were arrested in Spokane.  Washington Governor L.F. Hart announced he would start a statewide campaign to wipe out IWW, Bolsheviki, and other radicals.

Bills were introduced to the House of Representatives to curb radicals.  One bill gave the Department of Justice the jurisdiction to handle alien radicals.

Nebraska Governor McKelvie called for a crusade against the IWW.

November 14- Members of the American Legion were sworn in as special policemen to guard the city from an influx of one thousand IWW members into Spokane, Washington.  The policemen were instructed to arrest all IWW suspects.

IWW headquarters were raided in Los Angeles.

The Seattle Union Record was seized for a second time.

Arizona Governor Campbell declared war against the IWW.

The Lafayette Post of the American Legion in Poughkeepsie, New York organized itself into a body of vigilantes to repel the IWW.

November 15- Two posses of twenty men engaged in a gunfight with IWW members in Centralia, Washington.The police of San Francisco gave notice that every IWW member must leave the city. Local authorities then raided IWW halls and headquarters and arrested eighteen members.

Robert C. Saunders, Federal Attorney for the Western District of Washington, announced that all IWW arrested in Seattle, Tacoma, Centralia, and Chehallis had to stand trial on charges of conspiracy to overthrow the government.

IWW hall in Scott's Run, Virginia was raided and twelve IWW members were arrested.Four halls in New York City were raided.

Leland Stamford Chumley, editor of the Rebel Worker, was arrested during a raid on his home by members of the bomb squad on the charge of carrying a pocket knife.

November 17- The first trial under the Criminal Syndicalist Law of California began against IWW member James McHugo in Oakland, California.

November 20- 22 IWW members were indicted in Portland, Oregon for the violation of the criminal syndicalist act.  Eleven were held in connection with the Centralia Incident and charged with first degree murder.

November 27- Twenty-two IWW members held in Tacoma City Jail on a charge of criminal syndicalism went on a hunger strike. They ended the strike on 2 December 1919.

November 29- At a convention for the Illinois Bar Association in Chicago, Judge Keresaw Landis called for the outlaw of strikes and the clubbing of bolshevik heads.

November 30- Defense fund benefit for class war prisoners was held in Detroit, Michigan.  Around 6000 people attended and William Haywood was forbidden to speak by order of Police Commissioner Dr. Inches. A vigilante committee threatened Detroit's mayor with violence if Haywood was allowed to speak.

December- The Mexican IWW formed.

December 1- The trial for the twenty-eight IWW defendants charged with violating the Espionage Act and Lever Act began before Federal Judge John C. Pollock in Kansas City, Kansas.  Two members died during the two years in jail while waiting to be put on trial and another member went insane.

December 2- A police judge in Omaha ruled that proof of IWW membership was enough evidence to be convicted of vagrancy.  The ruling was named "Fitzgerald's Law on Vagrancy."

December 4- IWW James McHugo was found guilty of criminal syndicalism in Oakland, California.

December 17- Superior Judge Webster in Spokane signed a temporary restraining order that declared that any person who advocated, teaches, or promulgates teachings and principles of the IWW, distributes any wobbly literature with the IWW organization would be guilty of contempt of the superior court of Spokane county and may be punished by a jail sentence for the offence.

December 18- Twenty-six IWW members were found guilty on four charges under the Espionage Act and the Lever Act by a federal jury in Kansas City, Kansas.  They were sentenced to prison terms ranging from three to nine years in Leavenworth Federal Penitentiary.

December 19- W.W. Gordon, chief of police in Kansas City, issued an order to arrest all persons carrying an I.W.W. membership card.

December 21- 249 Russian "Reds" were deported from Ellis Island.  Four IWW men were included in the deportation.William Haywood spoke at the Labor Forum in Detroit, Michigan before an audience of two thousand people.

1921

March 3- Federal Sedition Act of 1918 is repealed by Congress.